Researchers from City University of New York have published research on how animals (in this case, salamanders) process external visual stimuli that does (in one case) and does not (in another case) indicate a strong "arrow of time". Surprisingly, they discovered that visual stimuli without a strong arrow of time generates a stronger arrow of time in retinal neurons when salamanders watched a video without a strong arrow of time. Lead researcher Christopher Lynn raises the interesting question, related to our inquiry about the subjectivity of time, “If it's not necessarily the arrow of time in the stimulus that's driving the arrow of time in the retina, what is driving it?”. Here's the summary article: https://www.vice.com/en/article/3adam9/neurons-produce-the-direction-of-time-mind-bending-study-suggests, and here is the research publication: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2112.14721.pdf.
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