Dan Young sent me this interesting tidbit on a new book that challenges the "Mitochnodrial Eve" story in this chapter. Dan says: I find anthropology quite interesting and I am always on the look out for new works discussing this topic, and I read an article this morning discussing a book coming this December that I think you might find interesting. The book is called The Genealogical Adam and Eve: The Surprising Science of Universal Ancestry by S. Joshua Swamidass of Washington University in Saint Louis. The book discusses the possibilities and implications of all humans being descended from a single mating pair, rather than the likely separate Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosome Adam as you discussed in Chapter 7 of Music as a Chariot . Now, it is heavily rooted in the Christian faith, as this is what Swamidass hopes to justify, but it appears to have been thoroughly peer-reviewed so there could be some valuable insights. However, I do not think you or I would agree with everything that Swamidass is attempting to claim, specifically regarding the chapter titled The Error of Polygenesis . Despite this though, I thought it may be of some interest. I have attached the link to the publisher’s website below. https://www.ivpress.com/the-genealogical-adam-and-eve Given the number of interesting allusions to Biblical stories unearthed in the book, it might be an interesting read for some.